Project Delivery Methods and BIM Implementation

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Information about Project Delivery Methods and BIM Implementation

Phil Puccio

All construction projects require a mix of services including planning, financing, drafting and construction. The delivery methods for construction projects consist of ways to organize these services to carry out the project. While each project delivery method generally involves an owner, designer, and builder, the way a project is carried out is different. The steps required and taken towards completing a project determine how successful the project will be. Therefore, choosing the right project delivery method is a very important step to take before starting construction.

The choice of delivery method for a construction project essentially depends on two factors:

  • the type of project (new build, repair, renovation, sustainability) and
  • The characteristics and requirements of the owner.

The ultimate success of a project delivery method depends on the level of collaboration, quality and experience of the owner and service provider teams, and the consistent and comprehensive application of the selected project delivery method and related information technology.

The following are the most common types of project delivery methods:

1. Design-Bid-Build (DBB)
2. Design build (DB)
3. Construction manager in danger (CMAR)
4. Integrated project management (IPD)
5. Public-private partnership (3P)

This project management method is the traditional method for carrying out a construction project and ensures a clear separation between the construction and planning processes.

In general, the only criteria for selecting a contractor for Design-Bid-Build (DBB) projects are the lowest construction costs. First, in the DBB procedure, an architect or engineer (A / E) is commissioned by a client to create the design documents (drawings and technical specifications) for a project. In addition, the A / E prepares a project and a cost estimate. After the design documents have been completed, an invitation to tender (tender) is created and approved for the contractor. The contractors will then evaluate the project documents and state the cost of the project. The architect and engineers are responsible for answering the bidders’ questions and assisting the owner in evaluating the bids received. Once a quote is selected, the owner signs a contract with the selected contractor and work on the project begins. The DBB method is usually the most widely used in the industry. It also has the ability to deliver an inexpensive project. Therefore, the DBB process is best for projects that are simple, do not have a tight schedule, and are on a budget.

Implementing BIM into a DBB process helps simplify a lot of the work. In a DBB process, the architect can model the project using the BIM tools and receive a quote that can be used for the tender. After the order has been placed with the contractor, the BIM models are passed on to the contractor team. The project progress can be updated on this platform and both the architect and the client are well informed about the project progress. Compared to the DB process, implementing BIM in a DBBS process is a tedious task.

With a DB project delivery method, the owner hires a company or team under a contract to deliver and complete the construction project from start to finish. As this team is responsible for both the design and construction components, price changes are kept to a minimum. Price changes usually occur in cases where unknown conditions or owner inquiries require cost increases. If the DB method involves more than one company, the owner must identify the working relationship between the members of the selected team in order to minimize and negate later conflicts.

The DB method can deliver a project on a tight schedule because projects can be broken down (split) and delivered in a package approach, where individual components are designed and built as needed to meet the final completion date. Since they are the same contractor, the design will be done in such a way that the contractor can do the work more easily. The client sets the maximum price for the project at an early stage and has a significant say in cost control.

DB is typically used for construction projects where the owner has clearly defined their requirements prior to planning. It’s also a suitable method when the schedule is an issue as it removes the components of the schedule that would be consumed by the bidding and procurement process.

When BIM is implemented in DB projects, it really shows its ability to cut costs, cut schedules and improve the overall project quality. It also expands the capacity of the project team to incorporate aspects such as sustainability in the planning and construction process. This is based on DB’s ability to improve collaboration between the planning and construction teams. BIM is a collaborative process that provides the design-build team with a perfect platform to evaluate, present and document the ideas. It also gives both the design and engineering teams the ability to add more detail to the various models earlier in the process. This allows for better decision-making and a better way to evaluate different design options in terms of cost, quality, schedule and sustainability without the back and forth that normally takes place in the Design Bid Build environment.

The CMAR method requires the hiring of a manager who is mostly a general contractor with technical and financial skills and abilities appropriate to the project. An individual or a company can take on this leadership role. A CMAR can be introduced during the initial planning and preplanning phase, during the design and drawing phase of the project, or during the pre-construction phase. Throughout the project, the CMAR company can also be responsible for assisting the owner in the following areas: construction schedule, project budget, cash flow analysis, discussion and acceptance of building materials and methods, etc. Incorporating a CMAR into a project gives the owners numerous advantages. Many aspects of project risk handling are carried over to the CMAR, reducing the likely overall risks to the owner. Once the owner agrees to the company’s maximum guaranteed price in the initial stages, any additional cost overruns become the obligation of the CMAR team.

The implementation of BIM in the CMAR process brings the same advantages that a DB process brings with it from its implementation. A BIM manager can also be appointed to take care of the BIM-related work. This also improves the collaboration between the architectural team, the contractor team and the management team. A smooth and organized workflow can be achieved which improves the project completion process.

IPD is a relatively new method of conducting construction projects that has only made a significant entrance into the construction sector in the last decade. With this method, the builder selects an architect, contractor and, if necessary, even a construction management team before the design of the project begins. A joint contract is signed between all three units after the goals, objectives and scope have been jointly determined.

This delivery method involves the contractor’s early involvement, which can result in a lean design that is explicitly aligned with the project goals. Similar to the CMAR method, the owner, as a key member of the project team, needs to remain very attached to the project. IPD offers the possibility of minimizing project costs and increasing efficiency through the cooperation of team members.

Since it is a single contract, the architect, contractor and site management team are legally linked into a single unit. Therefore, the risk that is usually assigned to one party is now shared among all parties, causing trouble for many owners. However, the increased cooperation between the parties achieved in the IPD method is believed to reduce the overall risk.

Since all 3 units (architect, contractor and management team) are formed in the initial phase, the implementation of BIM in the project can achieve all the advantages that BIM can offer. It will reduce confusion between different project participants and lead to improved communication, collaboration and decision-making between them, which will benefit the project.

In the construction industry, the 3P model involves a contract between a state (public) corporation and a private company / company (private) to finance, build / renovate, and usually operate and maintain public infrastructure. In return, the private cooperation receives an income that is generated from the completed project (for a predetermined period of time) in order to repay itself and ultimately to generate a profit from the investment. Some of the deployment methods for PPP projects are Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT), Build-Own-Operate (BOO) or Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) and Design-Build-Finance-Operate (DBFO) or Design – Build-Finance-Operate-Maintain (DBFOM)

The implementation of BIM in public-private partnership models mainly helps with the facility management of the project. This keeps track of the repair and renovation work, operation and maintenance data of the building, sustainability performance of the building, room management within, etc.
In this way, all updated data on the project can be transferred to the new company owner after the project has been handed over.

Deciding which project delivery method is best depends heavily on your experience with the type of project, your schedule, how much control you want over the project, and your budget. Since every project is different, we need to choose the right method on a case-by-case basis. Implementing BIM on the chosen method also has its own advantages and helps to complete the project more smoothly and in a more organized manner. It also helps in documenting the changes that take place throughout the project lifecycle.

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